The Emperor had given Louis 2000 marks of silver for his Crusade. Yet he could not stop … In exchange for this service, Louis was to remain, for the next decade and a half, on the side of the Staufen. He was a son of Otto I and his wife Agnes of Loon. In the struggle for the throne after the death of Henry VI, he remained one of the main supporters of the Hohenstaufen Philip of Swabia. Among the cities he founded were Landshut in 1204, Straubing in 1218 and Landau an der Isar in 1224. The crime was never cleared up since the murderer was immediately lynched. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... House of Wittelsbach, German noble family that provided rulers of Bavaria and of the Rhenish Palatinate until the 20th century. Since that time also the lion has become a heraldic symbol in the coat of arms for Bavaria and the Palatinate. Succeeding his father, Otto I, as duke in 1183, Louis enlarged the Bavarian domains and founded the cities of Landshut, Landau, Iser, and Straubing. Ludwig I or Louis I of Upper Bavaria was Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1253. Updates?  This allowed Barbarossa to expand his royal domains within the Empire to include Regensburg and Sulzbach at Louis's expense. As soon as their fleet had arrived at Damietta, a council was held with Pelagio Galvani, the papal legate, in the city. When the Landgrave of Stefling died without an heir in 1196, instead of including the region over to his royal domain, Henry enfeoffed it to Louis instead. Suddenly, Eberhard, Archbishop of Salzburg and Conrad, Bishop of Regensburg, falling at variance, declared war on Duke Louis and spared no sacred nor profane structures. Subsequently, however, Louis's relationship with both his ward and the emperor deteriorated. Please improve this article by adding a reference. After King Philip's murder, Louis did not immediately support the Welf King Otto IV, but rather ran a new king's election in Bavaria under his influence in which he would decide whom he would support. Louis's forces were pushed back by the combined might of Count Albert and Duke Ottokar. Because of all that, it resulted in a double-election in 1198. After him are Johann Friedrich Böttger (1682), Helmut Rahn (1929), Erhard Heiden (1901), Ernest, Elector of Saxony (1441), Dorothea of Brandenburg (1430), and Oswald Pohl (1892). Corrections? By 21 July, the Muslims retreated yet again. On the 23 July 1215, Louis was at Aachen, to oversee the re-crowning of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. All Andechs were banned from their lands, minus Otto I of Merania and Beatrice his bride who were both regarded as blameless. Louis I, (born Dec. 23, 1174, Kelheim, Bavaria—died Sept. 15, 1231, Kelheim), second Wittelsbach duke of Bavaria, who greatly increased his family’s territory and influence. He supported the Welf Emperor Otto IV, who therefore confirmed the everlasting reign of the Wittelsbach family in Bavaria. Ludwig I or Louis I of Upper Bavaria (German: Ludwig II der Strenge, Herzog von Bayern, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein) (13 April 1229 – 2 February 1294) was Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1253. Category:Louis I, Duke of Bavaria From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository Der Wittelsbacher Ludwig I. The margraves of Cham died without heirs in 1204 which resulted in major areas given to Louis by King Philip; however, the March of the Nordgau was left as an imperial fief. Louis was buried in the crypt of Scheyern Abbey. Ludwig was married to Ludmilla, a daughter of Duke Frederick of Bohemia. The Crusaders responded in kind and the Muslims withdrew. Louis immediately attempted to mediate and called for a Hoftag in Laufen, which caught the attention of many great men within the Empire, to settle the dispute. Louis extended the duchy of Bavaria and founded many cities. John E. Morby, "The Sobriquets of Medieval European Princes", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Louis_I,_Duke_of_Bavaria&oldid=959893063, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 31 May 2020, at 03:05. Our latest podcast episode features popular TED speaker Mara Mintzer. In May 1221, Louis sailed on with his Bavarian army with Ulrich II, Bishop of Passau, Herman V, Margrave of Baden-Baden, John of Brienne and many other nobles. With this marriage, the Wittelsbach inherited the Palatinate and kept it as a Wittelsbach possession until 1918. Louis would demonstrate his partisanship at the Hoftag at Würzburg, Mainz and his attendance of the Imperial retinue to Apulia and Sicily, where he would stand with the Emperor on securing Emperor Henry's inheritance of southern Italy. Thus under pressure he moved in 1230 back to Kelheim Castle. Louis was buried in the crypt of Scheyern Abbey. He founded the city of Landau an der Isar in 1224. Louis I (German: Ludwig; 23 December 1173 – 15 September 1231), called the Kelheimer or of Kelheim, since he was born and died at Kelheim, was the Duke of Bavaria from 1183 and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1214. Duke of Bavaria Louis Wittelsbach, I: Also Known As: "Ludwig" Birthdate: December 23, 1173: Death: September 15, 1231 (57) Immediate Family: Son of Otto I, Duke of Bavaria and Agnes of Loon Husband of Ludmilla of Bohemia. Nonetheless in 1211, Louis joined the Hohenstaufen party again; Emperor Frederick II rewarded him with the Palatinate of the Rhine in 1214: Louis's son Otto II was married to Agnes of the Palatinate, a granddaughter of Duke Henry the Lion and Conrad of Hohenstaufen. Due to the following aversion of the Wittelsbach family the city of Kelheim lost its status as one of the ducal residences. The Legate had been generous in wages to the knights and their attendants, armed ships sparing neither body nor wealth to finish the task, along with the help of Duke Louis , King John, the bishops, archbishops and the grandmasters of the orders. Louis I (German: Ludwig; 23 December 1173 – 15 September 1231), called the Kelheimer or of Kelheim, since he was born and died at Kelheim, was the Duke of Bavaria from 1183 and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1214. Louis was married to Ludmilla, a daughter of Duke Frederick of Bohemia. Louis had urged they assemble their armies and strike at the sultan's camp, before the river should take up its usual increase. Soon after his father's death in 1183, Louis was appointed under the guardianship of his uncle Conrad of Wittelsbach and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Louis's son and successor, Otto the Illustrious, had the bridge broken down in the following year and changed its gate to a chapel. He was a son of Otto I and his wife Agnes of Loon. Louis was murdered in 1231 on a bridge in Kelheim. Henry's death thus began a most difficult epoch in German history. After the ceremony, King Philip retired to his quarters, where he was murdered by Otto VIII, Count Palatine of Bavaria. Duke Louis I of Bavaria (German language: Ludwig I der Kelheimer, Herzog von Bayern, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein) (Kelheim, 23 December 1173 – 15 September 1231 in Kelheim) was the Duke of Bavaria in 1183 and Count Palatine of the Rhine in 1214. His continued support, however, had a price. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Louis-I-duke-of-Bavaria. Dezember 1173 in Kelheim;) war Herzog von Bayern … He founded the city of Straubing in 1218. Duke Louis I of Bavaria (German language: Ludwig I der Kelheimer, Herzog von Bayern, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein) (Kelheim, 23 December 1173 – 15 September 1231 in Kelheim) was the Duke of Bavaria in 1183 and Count Palatine of the Rhine in 1214. Louis, thinking those persons could never rise in judgement against him, made her all the protestations she could desire, so she drew back the curtains and revealed the three living witnesses. The northern and western German princes demanded a new emperor, choosing Otto of Brunswick, mainly under the encouragement of Pope Celestine III, while the southern and eastern German princes remained loyal to the Hohenstaufen. Since that time also, the lion has become a heraldic symbol in the coat of arms for Bavaria and the Palatinate. Ultimately, like many others, to secure his accomplishments - and those of his family - he made deals with King Otto IV which granted him the imperial fiefs of the Andechs, assured succession of the Palatinate of the Rhine towards him, and confirmed the everlasting reign of the Wittelsbach family in Bavaria. He was so taken with the contrivance that he solemnly married her afterwards.. The lords were immediately called for a court assembly, and they blamed the house of Andechs for the murder of the King. Then on 17 July they gathered at the village of Fareskur, where they were met by the enemy, and there held repelled the enemy so well, no losses came to the crusader side. The following year, in 1197, Louis went with the Emperor to Sicily to prepare for their departure for the German Crusade of 1197. Managed by: Ella Marie Funderburgh: Last Updated: June 21, 2017 The only force that could counter the north and west German's choice was Henry's brother Philip who had initially considered being regent, but was refused that right as the south and east Germans needed an acting king; and Frederick II was too young. Until the death of the emperor, Louis remained a loyal supporter of Henry VI and accompanied the Hohenstaufen in 1194 also to Italy on his second expedition for the conquest of the kingdom of Sicily, which was entitled Henry's wife Constance as sole heir. Please improve this article by adding a reference. Louis I, (born Dec. 23, 1174, Kelheim, Bavaria—died Sept. 15, 1231, Kelheim), second Wittelsbach duke of Bavaria, who greatly increased his family’s territory and influence. It was only through Louis's character that peace was restored.. Thus leaving him with one less problem and one great opportunity. With this new wealth of land, Louis founded Landshut and began the building of Trausnitz Castle there that same year. Louis was assigned commander of the Imperial army ahead of the Emperor, until Frederick would arrive there himself. By the month of June 1208, the many lords of the Empire were gathering with King Philip at Bamberg, the seat of the Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg, to celebrate the wedding of his niece, Beatrice II, Countess of Burgundy, with Otto I, Duke of Merania. In 1225 Louis took over the guardianship for the young king Henry. The ceremony was headed by Ekbert, Bishop of Bamberg of the House of Andechs (brother of the groom Otto) and Henry II, Margrave of Istria who also was in attendance. Upon his coming-of-age, in 1189, at sixteen years old, at the beginning of his reign, he had already fallen in the midst of a conflict which triggered the nearly simultaneous extinction of the Burgrave of Regensburg and the Count of Sulzbach in the years 1188 and 1189. (* 23. Succeeding his father, Otto I, as duke in 1183, Louis enlarged the Bavarian domains and founded the cities of Landshut, Landau, Iser, and Straubing. This granted the Crusaders a peaceful pass through Saramsah, which the Sultan had destroyed. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Louis left Bamberg immediately, roused his army, and seized the March of Istria. He was a son of Otto I and his wife Agnes of Loon. Afterwards the city of Kelheim lost the favour of the Wittelsbach family and its status as a ducal residence. In 1124, Otto V, count of Scheyern (died 1155), removed the…, Duke, a European title of nobility, having ordinarily the highest rank below a prince or king (except in countries having such titles as archduke or grand duke). Louis was married to Ludmilla, a daughter of Duke Frederick of Bohemia. Louis married the widowed Ludmilla of Bohemia in 1204 to gain the alliance of her uncle King Ottokar I of Bohemia.
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