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Preface

We are pleased to welcome you to the conference proceedings of the 12th Anniversary International Scientific Conference on Building Defects (Building Defects 2020) held on 26th – 27th November 2020. The conference is organized on behalf of His Magnificence prof. Marek Vochozka, MSc., MBA., Ph.D., rector of the Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice and under the honorary patronage of the Czech Chamber of Certified Engineers and Technicians (CKAIT).

The current conference is the twelfth continuous of Building Defects conferences, which solves especially the causes of defects during the building processes and afterwards defects of the building themselves as well as the defect of building structures. The conference is the premier chance for the presentation of new

advances and research results in the fields of civil engineering. The main aim of the conference is to the present the scientific research results and its practical solutions in the field of civil engineering, taking into account the principles of sustainable development as well as to present contemporary civil engineering issues and its future development.

It is our pleasure to announce the participation of expert presenters from various universities and research institutes in this two-day event. A lot of thanks are given to all authors of submitted papers for their participation. They contributed a great deal of effort and creativity to produce this work. We are happy they choose the 112h Anniversary International Scientific Conference on Building Defects to present to their excellent work. Thanks also to all editors and reviewers, who donated substantial time from their busy schedules to carefully read and evaluate the submitted scientific papers. The conference proceedings contain 22 papers. Each contributed paper was rigorously reviewed by two anonymous reviewers who were drawn mainly from the International Scientific Committee.

The spread of the coronavirus COVID-19 made adjustments to our life in this year, including the organization of our conference. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic situation all around the globe, we have organized this conference into the virtual conference and the method is a virtual presentation for all international and local participants. Participants could take part in the conference in the safety and comfort of their homes as a format of video conference or of poster presentation remotely. Everyone had an opportunity to watch the presentation and poster presentation and ask questions, and moderators were able to give their answers and comments.

At last but not at least, we would like to appreciate to all supporting organizations for their support and encouragement and got making the event a success. In addition, I would like to thank also to Organizing Committee for their great preparing work. We are looking forward to the next 13th International Conference Building Defects 2021 that will be held next year in November. We hope that it will be interesting and enjoying at least as all of its eleventh predecessors.

prof. Ingrid Juhásová Šenitková, MSc., CSc.

Conference Guarantee ITB in České Budějovice


General Conference Programme

Mechanical Engineering:

Building Materials:

Building Design and Technology:


Mechanical Engineering

Structural and Building Engineering – an Introduction

Ingrid JUHASOVA SENITKOVA | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Pavol JUHAS | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Abstract: Construction is a reflection of the current state of society. The construction is created as a result of a creative process including preparation, all stages of design and implementation. Current trends of modern building structures with a large span are characterized by the introduction of new types of load- bearing structural systems with excellent ecological, economic and aesthetic properties. The paper aim is to introduce the interaction and context in design and create a reliable economic and environmental friendly structure that will serve the required purposes.

Contact and Question: 14667@mail.vstecb.cz or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


A Generalized Approach to Estimating the Out-of-plane Buckling of Steel Sections with a Triangularly Corrugated Web

Sergey KUDRYAVTSEV | Ural Federal University | Russia

Abstract: Building practice shows that I-sections consist of flanges and corrugated web could be quite effectively used for the construction of compressed structures. In the present work, an investigation into the behaviour and design of steel bending and compressed members with the triangularly corrugated web is carried out. Based on the result of the finite element analysis (FEA) conducted by the ABAQUS an attempt is made to generalize approaches in the evaluation of the stability of such structures. The necessity for this work is since, in the most building codes and studies, the issues of the global buckling of such structures are considered separately for beam structures and for structures at central and eccentrical compression. Most of the building codes do not provide any recommendations and requirements for the design of compression members with corrugated webs at all and only consider the case of bending. It is shown that beam and column structures with triangularly corrugated web works almost identically in case of out-of-plane buckling. Finally, is proposed an expression allow to calculate the critical force in flanges of the cross-section in case of out of plane buckling caused by transverse bending, axial of eccentrical compression uniformly, that could be useful for practical structural design.

Contact and Question: s.v.kudryavtsev@urfu.ru or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Strength and Resistance of Structural Steels and Materials

Pavol JUHAS | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Ingrid JUHASOVA SENITKOVA | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Abstract: The paper presents basic information on determining of strength and resistance of structural steels and materials based on test results. The actual European standard EN 1990:2002 and related national standards CSN EN 1990:2004, and other are respected within the paper. The practical application of standard procedures is applied in determining the characteristic and design values of strength and resistance of structural steel S235 used for the production of welded test bars of the previous author’s experimental researches. Experimental data on the actual geometric dimensions and material properties of the individual test bars enabled their detailed statistical evaluation. Subsequently, the characteristic and design values of strength and resistance of structural steels used for the production of test bars were determined. The characteristic and design values of strength and resistance determined in this way are compared with the standard ones, which for S235 steel contain valid standards for the design of steel structures.

Contact and Question: 15364@mail.vstecb.cz or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Horizontal Forces during the motion of the Overhead Bridge Crane

Josef MUSILEK | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Abstract: During a motion of an overhead travelling crane on the crane runway horizontal forces between the crane and the crane runway girder occur. Some possibilities were presented in papers by author. In [1] the dynamical model was presented. This dynamical model enables to determine the behaviour of the crane during its motion and also enables to calculate the horizontal transverse forces between the overhead double bridge crane wheels and the crane runway girder. This dynamical model consists from rigid parts connected by springs representing the elasticity of the steel structure of the overhead double bridge crane. The dynamical model can be used not only for calculation of horizontal forces but for determination of the crane motion in general. The basic assumption of this model is, is that there is contact between the rim of the crane wheel and the rail of the crane runway. This paper shows the simulation of the motion of a specific overhead double bridge crane which is stationary and starts to move due to the engines torque. The simulation assumes contact between the rim of one crane wheel and the rail of the crane runway which is consistent with the model’s assumptions.

Contact and Question: musilek@mail.vstecb.cz or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Strength Verification of Structural Steels and Materials

Pavol JUHAS | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia
Ingrid JUHASOVA SENITKOVA | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Abstract: There is already a relatively wide range of structural steels and materials of various shapes and strengths for manufacturing of steel structures. They produce in different countries of Europe and the world. It is primarily a matter of the manufacturer, resp. the contractor of the steel structure with the vat and under what conditions he will provide the necessary construction materials. In addition to the price point of view, the quality of the considered construction materials is probably important. In particular, their geometric and strength suitability and accuracy are taken into account here. The quality of structural steels and materials is generally specified in the relevant standards and is the responsibility of the respective manufacturers. They declare it in the so-called quality certificates. At the same time, for various reasons, there may be a need to verify the declared quality, in particular the strength of specific structural steels and materials. The paper presents common probabilistic-statistical procedure and the strength procedures of structural steels and materials based on the test results, which are enabled by the current European standard EN 1990: 2002 as well as the transformed national standard CSN EN 1990: 2004, and similar other national standards. The practical application of the individual procedures and some details are illustrated by a specific example.

Contact and Question: 15364@mail.vstecb.cz or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Construction-Technical Survey of a Historical Building in Loket

Ales KANKOVSKY | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia
Martin DEDIC | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Abstract: The main objective of the article is to inform about the construction-technical survey, which focuses on the existing historical building from the first half of the 19th century, in Loket city, Czech Republic. In the past, the building was hit by floods, which affected its technical condition, the deterioration of which also affected the subsequent abandonment of the building, and neglect of maintenance. The main research issues stem from the building-technical survey focused on the condition of structures, especially the load-bearing wall structures, the ceiling structures, and the roof structures. After detecting the faults and other possible damage, we look for their causes and find out which of them are fatal to the building and which can easily remove. Of the evaluated structures, we focus mainly on their damage due to moisture, excessive structures loading, and changes in foundation conditions caused by previous floods. Furthermore, we assess the impact of failures on the structure and operation of the building. In conclusion, we propose measures based on the structure ́s found failures and possibilities for their repair.

Contact and Question: kankovsky@mail.vstecb.cz or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Strength and Resistance of Structural Steels and Materials

Pavol JUHAS | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia
Ingrid JUHASOVA SENITKOVA | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Abstract: The paper presents basic information on determining of strength and resistance of structural steels and materials based on test results. The actual European standard EN 1990:2002 and related national standards CSN EN 1990:2004, and other are respected within the paper. The practical application of standard procedures is applied in determining the characteristic and design values of strength and resistance of structural steel S235 used for the production of welded test bars of the previous author’s experimental researches. Experimental data on the actual geometric dimensions and material properties of the individual test bars enabled their detailed statistical evaluation. Subsequently, the characteristic and design values of strength and resistance of structural steels used for the production of test bars were determined. The characteristic and design values of strength and resistance determined in this way are compared with the standard ones, which for S235 steel contain valid standards for the design of steel structures.

Contact and Question: 14667@mail.vstecb.cz or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Analysis of Structural Integrity of Stone Masonry of Medieval Temples in Angkor, Cambodia

Jan PASEK | University of West Bohemia | Czechia

Hansley PRAVIN GAYA | AVE CZ Ltd | Czechia

Monika FREMUNDOVA | AVE CZ Ltd | Czechia

Abstract: Medieval stone temples on archaeological site Angkor were built between 9th and 14th century. Ever since they have been exposed to many external detrimental effects of various intensity. In particular, the cyclical character of loads and the structural defects of stone structures represent a significant contribution to their historical and contemporary gradual degradation and disintegration. This paper presents numerical simulations and analyses of static behaviour and process of disintegration of stone temples caused by the influence of the described factors. The evaluation of the achieved results showed a significant influence especially of structural lacks, insufficient subsoil properties and temperature load. The analysis of static reliability of the stone temples is performed in the framework of activities of Czech National Project at Angkor (CNPA) and topic of doctoral thesis at the University of West Bohemia in Pilsen (UWB). Theoretical simulation of structural behaviour of the stone temples in Angkor presents a unique approach that has not been addressed by any other team before.

Contact and Question: pasek@kme.zcu.cz or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Building Materials

Mixed low-density demolition waste in production of lightweight cement-based composites

Jaroslav POKORNY | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia
Jiri SAL | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia
Radek SEVCIK |Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of the Czech Academy of Science | Czechia

Abstract: Lightweight concretes are traditionally used composites intended for non-bearing applications. In their composition, various types of lightweight natural as well as industrially produced aggregates are employed. Regard to the considerable aggregates consumption, the potential application of mixed low- density demolition waste (MDW) in production of cement-based composites was studied in this paper. In mixes with maintained workability, silica sand was replaced by MDW in the amount of 0 – 100 vol. %. On hardened developed composites, basic physical properties, strength properties and dynamic moduli were determined and compared with control material after 28 days of water curing. Due to reduced weight of waste aggregate compared with the silica sand, hardened composites showed importantly lower bulk density. However, their increasing porosity induced by higher MDW additions led to the decrease of compressive and flexural strengths and dynamic moduli values. With respect to the maintaining of mechanical resistance, quantities of incorporated MDW not exceeding 25 % were chosen as an optimal replacements ratio.

Contact and Question: jaroslav.pokorny@mail.vstecb.cz or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Properties of selected polyurethane sealants in the sealing of cement-based materials

Adam BOHACEK | Brno University of Technology | Czechia

Abstract: Since the rise of cement-based building elements, there has been a need to seal these materials. Therefore, this article deals with the sealing of cement-based materials, specifically glass cement. The aim of this work is to find a sealant for sealing this problematic substrate, to verify its suitability and to show that polyurethane sealants are also important in the construction market. The problem of a cement-based substrate lies mainly in the dustiness of its surface, where there are always small dust particles on its surface. The main method for testing these sealants is the tensile test, which checks both the properties of the sealant itself and the contact joint between the sealant and the base material. Tensile test specimens are made of glass-cement plates and three representatives of one-component flexible polyurethane sealants are selected as the sealing material. From the results of the tensile test, it can be concluded that, with the appropriate choice of sealant and primer, problematic cement-based materials with good results can be sealed, provided that the grinding is carried out correctly.

Contact and Question: bohacek.a@fce.vutbr.cz or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Influence of Amount of Filler on Thermal Resistance of Bitumen Sheets

Jan PLACHY | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Jana VYSOKA | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Radek VEJMELKA | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Abstract: The paper deals with the correlation between the amount of fillers and the thermal resistance of bitumen sheets under EN 1110:2011. Based on the analysis of samples of bitumen sheets used for the insulation of concrete bridges, the standard EN 14695:2010 indicates what the usual amount of fillers is and what the value of the resistance to flow at elevated temperature is. Bitumen sheets, which are used in the Czech and Slovak Republic, were used as samples. The samples represented bitumen sheets modified with polymers of elastomeric and plastmeric nature. Bitumen sheets were of two types with and without protective covering. It was found that fly ash and micro-milled limestone were used as fillers in the bituminous substance of the sheets. The dependence between the amount of fillers and the resistance to flow at elevated temperature was only confirmed in some of the bitumen sheets samples.

Contact and Question: plachy@mail.vstecb.cz or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Building Design and Technology

Problems and Solutions for Green Roofs

I N MALTSEVA | Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin | Russia

D M SHVALEV | Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin | Russia

K A TKACHUK | Institute of Energy Efficient and Sustainable Design and Building | Germany

Abstract: Green roofs have been the standard design in many countries for hundreds of years due to the excellent thermal insulation properties of the fertile layer. A green roof is a space created by adding additional layers of fertile soil and plants over a traditional roofing system. Green roofing should not be confused with a traditional roof garden where plants are placed in free-standing containers on an exploited roof terrace. This article discusses the main advantages of roofing landscaping, the factors that influence the choice of type of roofing depending on climatic conditions and the main types of design solutions in megacities. The authors analyse the influence of the green roof on the energy efficiency of the building in the climatic conditions of Yekaterinburg. The main disadvantages of landscaped exploited coatings are considered. Also proposed is a new technology for the construction of an operated roof without a roll coating, but using penetrating waterproofing of reinforced concrete structures. It has now been proven that a properly designed and installed green roof can replace or compensate for the green environment at ground level that a large city is deprived of as a result of urbanization. The use of green roofs gives the metropolis ecological, social, economic and aesthetic benefits.

Contact and Question: i.n.maltceva@urfu.ru or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Aging Simulation of Plastic Products due to Weather Conditions

Petra MACHOVA | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Lucie CRHAKOVA | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Michal VEJVODA | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Michal KRAUS | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Abstract: The paper describes the aging of plastic products due to weather conditions. It focuses on the analysis of aging and weathering of plastic products, or parts of building structures. As part of the research, the Xenotest Alfa device was used to simulate the weathering of plastic products. Xenotest Alfa simulates, for example, variable temperature, solar radiation, humidity and different types of climate. Samples of plastic and wood-plastic products were placed in the device, where the test of accelerated degradation and light stability was performed. The motivation for using the device is the effect of UV radiation on the samples, which causes the aging of the material and its gradual degradation, which may in the future cause the product to malfunction or degrade its color, as shown by this research.

Contact and Question: 19514@mail.vstecb.cz  or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Ensuring Blast Resistance of Critically Important Buildings and Construction in Case of Air Crash

A A KOMAROV | National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering | Russia

N V GROMOV | National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering | Russia

O N KOROLCHENKO | National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering | Russia

Abstract: Introduction. The paper is focused on improving blast resistance of critically important buildings and constructions expose to a deflagration explosion due to an aircraft (A/C) crash in their vicinity, by improving methods of the explosion effects calculation. The main tasks include: 1. considering the physical processes that occur during an air­craft crash, which causes the formation of a highly explosive cloud; 2. quantifying the para­meters affecting explosion loadings; 3. provide insights into modern procedures for calculating effects of a deflagration explosion caused by an A/C crash; 4. giving an example of calculating the load­ings on a critically important building or construction in an crash deflagration explosion. Methodology and calculations. The article presents a methodology for calculating the maximum parameters of explosion loadings on buildings and constructions arising from aircraft crash situations. The calculations are performed with the help of author’s and generally accepted methods by the numerical method with the use of MatLab software complex. Results and discussion. As a result of calculations, the proposed methodology allows to obtain: the fuel mass values capable of forming highly explosive mixture; to choose the appropriate scenario for the development of an aircraft crash: an igneous ball or a deflagration explosion of a fuel-air mixture; to determine the time dependence of the fuel vapor concentration in the air; to evaluate the maximum apparent flame front speed; to determine the dynamic parameters of the fireball and the time dependences of the overpressure at points in the space adjacent to the explosion site; to build up a maximum pressure field created by this deflagration explosion; to obtain the explosion loading integral parameters: the maximum and minimum explosion overpressure, the compression phase pulse, the probability of destruction of buildings; to evaluate vibration loading on the building from a deflagration explosion. Conclusion. The metho­dology presented in the article can be used to calculate the loadings on buildings and structures during a deflagration explosion that occurs when an aircraft crashes.

Contact and Question: bzbb@mail.ru or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


The State of Public Space in Small Towns in Terms of its Users ́ Risk Groups

Zuzana KRAMAROVA | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Ales KANKOVSKY | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Abstract: At the beginning of the 3rd millennium, the issue of small towns is still a very problematic area in terms of urban planning which lies on the fringes of the interest of the professional public. The issue of the quality of public space in small towns is not tackled and its current development is in some places unprofessional because it is determined mainly by the local community instead of experts. Public space in small towns is massively subordinated to the needs of individual car transport and as a result, this space is aesthetically and functionally degrading, and at the same time, it contributes to the deterioration of the health of a population that does not move enough especially the most commonly used part – walking. The aim of this paper is to approach the needs of adaptation of public space in small towns for risk groups of the population, which are mainly seniors, children, and people accompanying children under 5 years of age.

Contact and Question: kramarova@mail.vstecb.cz or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Thermal Properties and Overheating of Ventilated Air Cavities Under Pitched Roof Coverings

Ondrej PILNY | Brno University of Technology | Czechia

Lubor KALOUSEK | Brno University of Technology | Czechia

Abstract: Ventilated air cavities have been a mandatory part of thermally insulated pitched roofs in the Czech Republic. The purpose of these important elements is, among other things, primarily to prevent condensation of water vapor, which could otherwise endanger the roof structure and thus negatively affect the life of the entire composition. However, their thermal properties are often neglected and their overall design is overwhelmingly approached, due to the very difficult and complex calculation, as an empirical and normative matter without a higher link to the actual properties of the air cavity itself. It is therefore necessary that mentioned properties must be investigated more thoroughly, especially with increasing demands on thermal properties and increasingly extreme temperature fluctuations. This work describes a real full-scale experiment in which the properties of temperature and humidity of ventilated air cavities at the boundary with the external environment were measured. The composition of the experimental roof of the building was measured in all important layers, together with all the external and internal environmental conditions. The output is then a detailed course of behavior, which was analyzed and described.

Contact and Question: pilny.o@fce.vutbr.cz or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Firety Safety in Pre-Trial Detention Facilities

A PARFYONENKO | National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering | Russia

Abstract: This article describes the main provisions for assessing the safety of people during the evacuation from the buildings and structures in the event of a fire. The analysis of normative and scientific bases in the ensuring the safety of people during the evacuation showed the absence of psychophysiological patterns of behaviour and movement of people in the buildings of pre-trial detention facilities necessary to assess the estimated values of fire risk. The data presented in the methodology for assessing fire risks do not allow to reliably assess the probability of evacuating people in the event of a fire in such institutions, since the mode of operation of the facility is not taken into account. The key factor determining timely evacuation is the time of the beginning of the evacuation, depending on the behavioural aspects of the main functional contingent. The absence of such studies determines the need for field observations and experiments in the field of evacuation of people from the buildings of pre-trial detention facilities.

Contact and Question: parf01@inbox.ru or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Problems of People’s Evacuation Modeling

A PARFYONENKO | National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering | Russia

J KURBATOVA | National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering | Russia

Abstract: In the field of the study of the human flows traffic, there are programs appear whose developers don’t have the knowledge required about fire safety and the parameters of the human flows traffic. Algorithms embedded in software and computer systems give inadequate results, which reduces the indicator of people’s safety in buildings and structures. This work describes the features of using individual-flow evacuation modeling of people in buildings and structures when changing the width of the aperture of door. The main parameters of the human flow, characteristic of individual-flow modeling, are also considered. The survey of software and computer systems used in risks estimation of buildings and structures. The results of people’s evacuation modeling in software and computer systems are analyzed. An assessment of the correctness of the results was made, a conclusion was drawn on the adequacy and possibility of using these software and computer systems in calculating the time of evacuation of people in buildings and structures.

Contact and Question: kurbatovajuliapb@mail.ru or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Problems of Regulating the Safe Evacuation of  People at the Subway Stations

A PARFYONENKO | National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering | Russia

E KOSTYUCHENKO| National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering | Russia

Abstract: This article describes the main provisions for assessing the safety of people during the evacuation from the subway stations. A huge number of passengers waiting for the train, leads to a seal flow. The high density value reduces the width of the doorway in the light. People tend to enter the car without waiting for the passengers to leave it, being afraid not to have time to land in the allotted time for this or not to get into the car as a result of its overfilling. Higher intensity values can be observed in the case of a small number of waiting passengers. The density of people on the platform when waiting for the train determines, in addition, the comfort of the waiting conditions of passengers and their safety. The presented results of the study on the safety of subways will allow more accurately and differentially determine the movement of human flows in the different sections of the track at the metro stations.

Contact and Question: parf01@inbox.ru or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Ductwork Pressure Loss Determination Utilizing Building Information Model

Michal NOVACEK | Brno University of Technology | Czechia

Josef REMES | Brno University of Technology | Czechia

Abstract: Building design created as an information model contains not only information formated during building geometry creation but also additional information filled in by a designer. The data can be used further as well as applied in building geometry analyses. One of these are analyses of pressure loss in air- handling units. Such analyses take the advantage of both created geometric parameters, and basic physical variable. These analyses can be carried out directly in BIM software without external calculations needed. The main aim of this article is to describe utilization of information in building model leading to obtain pressure loss in air-handling units.

Contact and Question: xpnovac03@vutbr.cz or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Digital model of an existing building a wild riverbed in Tokyo

Martin DEDIC | Czech Technical University in Prague | Czechia

Abstract: This paper presents an application of photogrammetric methods for so-called image based modelling and rendering. Digital photogrammetry technology was used for the real use of a digital model of an artificial riverbed for a wild river in Tokyo. This technology was applied using two software programs, where we evaluate their compatibility and propose measures that should increase efficiency in the future in the creation of digital models of existing buildings. We describe the process of creating a model in both software separately and evaluate their use for a given type of object. In this paper, we describe the individual processes from the selection of photographs through the cleaning and smoothing of the point cloud to the final model. We present the practical use of the created digital model. In the pictures we show the solved structure, the process of joining individual photographs and the final model for the overall idea of the application of this method. The results and discussions section describes the evaluation of both software and proposals for measures for their use, especially for water structures of a linear nature containing recurring elements such as water barriers.


Contact and Question: martin.dedic@fsv.cvut.cz or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com


Quality of the Indoor Environment in the Nursery School: Monitoring, Analysis and Optimization

Michal KRAUS | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Ingrid JUHASOVA SENITKOVA | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Kamila HADRBOLCOVA | Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice | Czechia

Abstract: The paper aims are to assess and evaluate the hygiene and quality of the indoor environment in selected indoor areas of the kindergarten, to analyse the construction, technical and technological solutions of the building in accordance with the concept of designing healthy buildings and their environment. The paper will propose the operation of the building in terms of hygiene and perceived air quality. The paper assumes in-situ monitoring of the indoor environment of the nursery school using a multifunctional measuring instrument for analysing the quality of the indoor environment and comfort (Testo 480 + accessories). The research goal is to update and expand information on the quality of the indoor environment of kindergartens during the heating season. The aim is to design a concept for improving the quality of the environment in nursery schools and to prepare documents for relevant recommendations, including recommendations concerning, for example, construction or utility materials for nursery schools and the mode of their operation.

Contact and Question: 19514@mail.vstecb.cz or moderator infobuildingdefects@gmail.com